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TABLE OF CONTENTS

Abstract ................................................... 6

INTRODUCTION ............................................... 7
The California Deserts ................................. 9
The Colorado Desert .................................. 9
The Mojave Desert .................................... 12

METHODS AND GENERAL NOTES .................................. 15

Collection Assessment .................................. 20
Data Citation .......................................... 21
Terminology ............................................ 23
The Keys ............................................... 28
The Illustrations ...................................... 28

KEY TO SUBFAMILIES ......................................... 30
Subfamily Cerapachyinae ................................ 37
Genus Cerapachys ..................................... 43
Subfamily Dolichoderinae ............................... 45
Genus Dorymyrmex ..................................... 50
Genus Forelius ....................................... 59
Genus Linepithema .................................... 64
Genus Liometopum ..................................... 65
Genus Tapinoma ....................................... 68
Subfamily Ecitoninae ................................... 71
Genus Neivamyrmex ..................................... 71
Subfamily Formicinae ................................... 87
Genus Brachymyrmex .................................. 90
Genus Camponotus .................................... 92
Genus Formica ....................................... 115
Genus Myrmecocystus ................................. 125
Genus Paratrechina .................................. 176
Subfamily Myrmicinae ................................... 182
Genus Acromyrmex ..................................... 190
Genus Aphaenogaster .................................. 193
Genus Cardiocondyla .................................. 203
Genus Crematogaster .................................. 205
Genus Cyphomyrmex . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 217
Genus Ephebomyrmex ................................... 222
Genus Leptothorax .................................... 225
Genus Manica ......................................... 230
Genus Messor ......................................... 232
Genus Monomorium ..................................... 245
Genus Pheidole ....................................... 248
Genus Pogonomyrmex ................................... 288
Genus Solenopsis ..................................... 310
Genus Tetramorium .................................... 325
Subfamily Ponerinae .................................... 327
Genus Hypoponera ..................................... 327

Subfamily Pseudomyrmecinae ............................. 331
Genus Pseudomyrmex ................................... 331

ROLE OF ANTS IN DESERT ECOSYSTEMS.......................... 291
Plant/Ant Interactions................................. 293
Flower Visitation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 293
Seed Harvesting and Dispersal........................ 294
Leafcutting.......................................... 299
Plants as Domiciles for Ants......................... 299
Interactions of Ants with Other Faunal Elements........ 300
Ants and Vertebrates................................. 300
Ants and Other Invertebrates......................... 303
Scavenging and Decomposition........................... 307
Summary of Feeding Habits for California Desert Ants... 308

ANTS AND THE CONDITION OF THE ENVIRONMENT.................. 312
Habitat Section........................................ 312
Known Habitats of California Desert Ants............... 313
Susceptibility of Desert Ants to Disturbances.......... 313
Ants as Indices to the Condition of the Environment.... 323
Presence of Highly Sensitive Species................. 323
High Species Diversity/Feeding Guilds Well?Represented 324
Dominance by Granivore Guild......................... 324
Presence of Species Preferring Disturbed Habitats.... 324
Land use Categories and their Impact on Ants........... 325
Effects of Livestock Grazing on Ant Populations...... 325
Effects of Cultivation of Land on Ant Populations.... 326
Effects of Urbanization on Desert Ants............... 329
Effects of Highway and Freeway Corridors and Dirt Roads on Ant Populations........................... 331
Impact of Recreational Activities on Ant Populations 333


ACKNOWLEDGMENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 337

LITERATURE CITED . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 339
APPENDIX I.
Checklist and Distribution of California Desert Ants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 423
APPENDIX II.
Zoogeographic Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 428
APPENDIX III.
Key to genera of California Deserts Ants Based on Worker Head Capsules . . . . . .435
APPENDIX IV.
Figures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 448
 

• • •
Date of this version 18, October 2003
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